Trump Fans Can’t Sue if They Contract Covid-19 at Rallies, Campaign Says

This briefing has ended. Read live coronavirus updates here.New rule for Trump campaign rallies: You can’t sue if you get the virus.As President Trump moves to resume indoor campaign rallies, his campaign has added a twist to his optimistic push to return to life as it was before the pandemic: Attendees cannot sue the campaign or the venue if they contract the virus at the event.“By clicking register below, you are acknowledging that an inherent risk of exposure to Covid-19 exists in any public place where people are present,” a statement on Mr. Trump’s campaign website informed those wishing to attend his June 19 rally in Tulsa, Okla. “By attending the rally, you and any guests voluntarily assume all risks related to exposure to Covid-19 and agree not to hold Donald J. Trump for President, Inc.; BOK Center; ASM Global; or any of their affiliates, directors, officers, employees, agents, contractors or volunteers liable for any illness or injury.”Mr. Trump’s rally in Tulsa, the site of a massacre of black residents in 1921, will be on Juneteenth, a prominent African-American holiday recognizing the end of slavery in the United States. The rally will also be his first since the pandemic forced most of the country into quarantine three months ago, a campaign official said Wednesday. Polls have shown former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. establishing a substantial lead over Mr. Trump.Oklahoma, a state Mr. Trump won four years ago by 36 percentage points, began lifting restrictions on businesses on April 24 and moved into Phase 3 of its reopening on June 1, allowing summer camps to open and workplaces to return with full staffing. The state’s infection numbers are steady but not falling.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention still recommends that people avoid mass gatherings and stay out of crowded places. But of the four states that the president announced this week as sites for rallies, three of them — Florida, Arizona and North Carolina — are seeing rising virus caseloads.In other developments: President Trump will deliver his Aug. 27 convention speech in Jacksonville, Fla., after his demands for an event without social distancing rules led to a rift with Democratic leaders in North Carolina, where the Republican convention was originally scheduled to be held.Education Secretary Betsy DeVos issued an emergency rule barring colleges from granting virus relief funds to foreign and undocumented students, including tens of thousands protected under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival program, or DACA.Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, America’s top infectious disease expert, said in an interview with CBC News that he supported the World Health Organization, “as imperfect as it is.”ECONOMIC ROUNDUPStocks fall in the U.S., and Congress is divided on extending aid.Stocks on Wall Street on Thursday saw their sharpest daily decline in three months as investors’ confidence was rattled by grim new economic forecasts, another 1.5 million weekly unemployment claims and a worrisome uptick in cases in parts of the United States.The S&P 500 fell nearly 6 percent, and the Dow Jones industrial average fell by nearly 7 percent. Oil prices also cratered, reflecting the sudden unease that swept across financial markets.Asian markets fell on Friday but their declines did not match the scale of Wall Street’s plunge the day before.Until Thursday, U.S. stocks had been on an upward trajectory for weeks, a rally that stood in stark contrast to a collapse in economic activity but seemed to show that investors were betting on a quick recovery as states lifted stay-at-home restrictions. By Monday, the S&P 500 had climbed about 45 percent from its lows in late March and recouped all of its losses for the year.As the bad news brought Wall Street’s recent rally to a halt, policymakers remained divided as to their next steps. The Labor Department reported Thursday that another 1.5 million U.S. workers had filed state unemployment claims last week, but Republicans and Democrats in Congress remained at odds over whether to extend federal jobless benefits.Lawmakers in both parties and administration officials appear to agree that Congress should consider some form of assistance to workers as part of another round of virus aid that is likely to be debated in the coming weeks. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said on Thursday that he was “very seriously considering” backing another round of economic stimulus payments. “It’s a very efficient way for us to deliver money into the economy,” he said, noting that for people who still had jobs, the money was akin to a tax cut. Mr. Mnuchin said he remained optimistic that the economy would rebound during the second half of the year. Here is some other key economic news:The 1.5 million new state unemployment claims filed last week were the fewest since the crisis began, but still far above normal levels. A further 700,000 workers who were self-employed or otherwise ineligible for state jobless benefits filed new claims for Pandemic Unemployment Assistance, a federal aid program. The Federal Reserve and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development both issued grim economic projections on Wednesday. The Fed forecast that the unemployment rate could stay above 9 percent this year and would be high for the next several years. And on Thursday, Dr. Scott Gottlieb, a former commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, warned that the first wave of virus cases was not yet over. Global trade is expected to plunge 27 percent in the April-June quarter compared with the same period last year, the United Nations said on Thursday. For the year, the agency predicted global trade would fall by 20 percent compared with 2019.Former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr., the presumptive Democratic presidential nominee, unveiled on Thursday an eight-part plan for reopening the economy and faulted President Trump for his handling of the matter. “Trump has basically had a one-point plan: Open businesses, just open,” Mr. Biden said at a round-table event in Philadelphia. “But it does nothing to keep workers safe and keep businesses able to stay open.”Twitter removes fake accounts that discussed China’s response to the virus.Twitter said on Thursday that China has stepped up its effort to spread misinformation on the platform by creating tens of thousands of fake accounts that discussed the Communist Party’s response to the virus and the Hong Kong protests.Twitter said it had discovered and removed 23,750 accounts that were “highly engaged” in a coordinated effort to spread misinformation, and 150,000 others that were dedicated to amplifying China’s messages through likes and retweets. Those findings are consistent with a recent New York Times analysis that detected hundreds of similar accounts.The Trump administration has sparred with Beijing over the pandemic, saying that China mishandled the outbreak, which is believed to have started in the city of Wuhan. Chinese officials on Twitter have fought back, suggesting without evidence that the virus originated in the United States.Twitter announced its finding on the same day that Zoom, a video-chat app that rose to fame during the outbreak, acknowledged that it had briefly blocked the account of a U.S.-based Chinese human-rights leader at the Chinese government’s request. The activist, Zhou Fengsuo, had used the platform to organize a commemoration of the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown between activists in the United States and China.Zoom restored Mr. Zhou’s account on Wednesday, but the suspension highlights the California company’s delicate balancing act between free-speech principles and the power of China’s huge censorship machine.Gov. Kate Brown of Oregon said on Thursday that she was pausing efforts to reopen the state’s economy for a week because of a recent rise in coronavirus cases. Ms. Brown said her state — which has had one of the lowest rates of confirmed cases per capita in the nation — was placing county applications for reopenings on hold in order to give public health experts time to ensure that the virus wasn’t spreading too quickly. She described the move as a “yellow light.”Ms. Brown made the announcement hours after a top health adviser to Gov. Larry Hogan of Maryland publicly pushed back against that state’s latest plans to ease more restrictions on indoor gatherings.While Maryland’s rate of new cases has been decreasing in recent weeks, the state reported more than 500 new cases on Wednesday. “We can’t let hundreds of cases a day become our new normal,” the health adviser, Dr. Tom Inglesby, the director of the Center for Health Security at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, wrote on Twitter.In other U.S. news:Puerto Rico, which had the earliest and strictest coronavirus lockdown in the United States, announced on Thursday that much of its economy would reopen next week and that tourists would be welcome again beginning July 15. An outcry grew in Ohio after a Republican lawmaker, State Senator Stephen A. Huffman, who is also a doctor, asked at a hearing on Tuesday if the high rate of virus cases among African-Americans was because “the colored population” did not wash their hands as well as other groups. State Senator Hearcel F. Craig, a member of the Legislative Black Caucus, called the remarks an example of “systemic racism.”A young woman whose lungs were destroyed by the virus received a double lung transplant last week at Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, the hospital reported on Thursday, the first known lung transplant in the United States for Covid-19.Gov. Brian Kemp of Georgia on Thursday signed an executive order lifting the limit on the number of people who can sit together in restaurants and decreeing that servers do not have to wear masks except when interacting with patrons. The order, which goes into effect June 16, also says bars can now hold up to 50 people, or 35 percent of total listed fire capacity, and removes the limit on the number of people who can sit together at indoor movie theaters.Arkansas, which is set to move into its second phase of reopening on Monday, could face a shortage of I.C.U. beds in hospitals across the state, with only 32 percent currently available and cases on the rise, according to Covid Exit Strategy, a group tracking states’ steps to contain the virus. The state saw 288 new cases on Wednesday, according to New York Times data.As the number of virus cases in Texas continues to climb, with 2,500 new cases added on Wednesday, virus-related hospitalizations are also up. The state has thousands of hospital beds available, but it is running low on its I.C.U. beds, with 70 percent already in use, according to Covid Exit Strategy. The rate of positive tests was nearly 7 percent as of Tuesday, according to Texas data.Cases in Florida have spiked in recent days, as it becomes an emerging hot spot. There have been more than 1,000 newly reported cases almost every day in the last week, up from daily increases in the mid hundreds in May. Even so, Florida continues to reopen. Walt Disney World, one of the largest tourist sites in the world, plans to reopen in mid-July with a limited number of visitors.Gov. Jared Polis of Colorado said Thursday that an increase in cases in two neighboring states, Utah and Arizona, was concerning.The drugmaker Regeneron said on Thursday that it was beginning a clinical trial of an antibody cocktail that it had developed to prevent and treat Covid-19, the disease caused by the virus. If the treatments work, they might provide a bridge to a vaccine and possibly a temporary protection to people like health care workers who are at high risk.Educators told a Senate panel on Wednesday that without a large federal investment in public schools, districts hit hard by the virus would struggle to meet the needs of their pupils this fall as the schools tried to reopen. “We must double down for those who have been most impacted by the Covid crisis if we are to deliver on the promise of education to create a more equitable society,” the superintendent of Denver Public Schools said.Professional golf returned from a 90-day hiatus on Thursday, when the PGA Tour’s Charles Schwab Challenge teed off in Fort Worth without fans present. “It was interesting but nice to not have to worry about anybody saying something weird,” said Bryson DeChambeau.As Italy reopens, tour guides plead for more aid, and tourists.A few dozen black-clothed tour organizers and guides twirled white umbrellas to the tune of “Singing in the Rain” outside the Pantheon, one of Rome’s greatest tourist attractions recently. The problem was, there were very few tourists.In the days after some of the first lockdown restrictions were lifted, Italians relished the empty streets, rediscovering city monuments and museums that they would normally avoid because of long lines.But now, frustration is building over the decimation of a crucial industry. Even as travel restrictions are lifted throughout Europe, reluctance to travel beyond national borders remains high. Forecasts for the number of airline reservations to Italy suggest drops of 95 percent in June, 82 percent in July and 76 percent in August, compared with the same periods last year, according to ENIT, Italy’s national tourism agency.That is nothing short of a disaster, according to tour organizers and guides, who put together events across Italy this week to draw attention to their plight. Many are demanding additional government subsidies for the coming season, when most will be out of work.“Without tourism, Italy dies,” chanted Ilenya Moro, a tour guide in Rome who helped organize the Pantheon flash mob.About 3.5 million people in Italy depend on tourism for their livelihoods, including taxi drivers, restaurateurs and waiters, hoteliers and the country’s 25,000 tour guides and 20,000 tour organizers.In 2018, tourism accounted for around 13.2 percent of Italy’s gross domestic product, contributing about €232 billion, or around $262 billion, to the economy, according to ENIT. In 2019, more than 63 million foreigners traveled to Italy.The virus took 98 days to reach 100,000 cases in Africa — but only 18 days to double from that figure, the World Health Organization announced on Thursday.While the numbers may have risen so significantly in part because of increased testing, the agency said in a statement that more than half of the 54 countries on the continent were experiencing community transmission. Ten countries were driving the rise in numbers and accounted for nearly 80 percent of all cases, it said. South Africa has a quarter of the total cases.Of the 5,600 deaths recorded, a majority were in just five countries: Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa and Sudan.Separately, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the top infectious disease expert in the United States, said in an interview with CBC News that he supported the World Health Organization.“I would hope that we could continue to benefit from what the W.H.O. can do at the same time that they continue to improve themselves,” he said, adding that the world needed the agency, “as imperfect as it is.”President Trump, under criticism for his handling of the response to the virus, has said that the W.H.O. is responsible for significant failures in the crisis and that he plans to halt American funding for the organization.Here are some other developments from around the world:India has added nearly 11,000 new cases, its biggest single-day rise so far, officials said on Friday. The country’s total confirmed caseload, which is approaching 300,000, has now overtaken the United Kingdom’s and is the fourth-largest in the world, behind the United States, Brazil and Russia.Indonesia, the world’s fourth most populous country, is experiencing a sustained increase in virus cases, about three weeks after millions of people began crisscrossing the country at the end of Ramadan. This week, Indonesia has recorded three consecutive days of about 1,000 new infections each day, with a total of 35,295 cases and 2,000 deaths as of Thursday afternoon.European Union is recommending that all member countries open their borders to one another by Monday. The European Commission, the bloc’s executive branch, is recommending a gradual opening to outsiders starting in July. In Canada, commentary on Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s unruly mane has become a national sport. With barbershops and salons set to reopen in Ottawa on Friday, the question is: Will he get a haircut, or will he refrain in solidarity with Canadians in areas still under lockdown?In Europe, ‘corona cycleways’ are becoming the new post-confinement commute.As France eased its coronavirus lockdowns last month, a small army of street workers fanned out across Paris in the dark of night. They dropped traffic barriers along car lanes and painted yellow bicycle symbols onto the asphalt. By morning, miles of pop-up “corona cycleways” had been laid, teeming with people heading back to work.As European cities emerge from quarantines, bicycles are playing a central role in getting the work force moving again. Governments are trying to revive their economies from a deep recession, but cannot fully rely on public transportation to get workers to their jobs because of the need for social distancing. In urban areas at least, bicycles are suddenly an unlikely component to restarting economic growth.In Europe, where many cities have integrated cycling as a mode of transportation, the pandemic is speeding up an ecological transition to limit car traffic and cut pollution, especially as new research draws links between dirty air and coronavirus death rates.Britain, France, Italy and their neighbors are accelerating the spending of hundreds of millions of euros on new biking infrastructure and schemes to get people pedaling.“This crisis has made clear that we need to change the way we live, work and move,” said Morten Kabell, chief executive of the European Cyclists’ Federation. “In the era of social distancing, people are wary of using public transportation, and cities can’t take more cars. So they are looking to the bike as a natural mode of mobility for the future.”U.N. warns that the pandemic could produce a surge of child labor.The economic and social upheavals caused by the coronavirus pandemic already have shortened or ended the school year for more than 1 billion children in 130 countries. Now the United Nations says the scourge is raising a new risk: a drastic rise in child labor.A joint report released Friday by two U.N. agencies, Unicef and the International Labour Organization, said that millions of children may now have no choice but to toil at low-paying jobs to help their families survive. The shift threatens to reverse 20 years of decline in the use of child labor, the report said.“As the pandemic wreaks havoc on family incomes, without support, many could resort to child labor,” the director-general of the I.L.O., Guy Ryder, said in the report. It cited studies showing that each percentage point increase in poverty leads to at least a 0.7 percent increase in child labor in some countries.“In times of crisis, child labor becomes a coping mechanism for many families,” the executive director of Unicef, Henrietta Fore, said in the report. With school closures, the rise in poverty and fewer social services, she said, “more children are pushed into the work force.”Even when classes restart, the report said, some parents “may no longer be able to afford to send their children to school.”Both U.N. agencies are working on a simulation model to examine the impact of the coronavirus on child labor globally and expect to release new estimates on child labor in 2021Puerto Rico announces plans to reopen its economy, including tourism.Puerto Rico, which had the earliest and strictest coronavirus lockdown in the United States, announced on Thursday that much of its economy would reopen next week and that tourists would be welcome again beginning July 15. For nearly three months, anyone arriving on the island by air has been required to enter a two-week quarantine. Beaches, where access has been permitted only for exercise, will be fully open next week but will close if people start throwing big parties, Gov. Wanda Vázquez said.“When all these destinations begin to open, Puerto Rico cannot be left behind,” she said, adding that Covid-19 screenings at the airport will continue. Although she said the island’s lockdown would officially end on Tuesday, after three months, its curfew will not. Instead people will be allowed to stay out until 10 p.m. instead of 7 p.m.In mid-March, Ms. Vázquez became the first governor in the United States to order a complete shutdown of an economy, doing so at the first signs of the disease on the island. In addition to imposing a curfew, she allowed people to leave the house only to shop for food and other necessities.As of mid-April, Puerto Rico’s testing rate for the virus was lower than that of any state, prompting public health experts to worry that it could be especially vulnerable once it tried to reopen.But Ms. Vázquez said on Thursday that locking down the island swiftly had paid off: According to statistics from the Department of Health, 144 people died and 1,403 cases were confirmed. (Nearly 4,000 other cases were deemed “probable,” according to the government data.)Movie theaters, gyms, museums and spas will be among the businesses allowed to reopen next week. Many will require face coverings. Mass transit remains closed.“These have been difficult decisions,” the governor said. “If there is a peak in cases, in hospitalizations, I will have no other option or remedy than to resume curfews.”DeVos makes it official: No virus relief for ‘dreamers.’Education Secretary Betsy DeVos issued on Thursday an emergency rule barring colleges from granting virus relief funds to foreign and undocumented students, including tens of thousands protected under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival program, or DACA.The rule codifies the Education Department’s disputed reading of the federal Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act that Congress passed in March to exclude large swaths of students from accessing emergency relief grants. That includes international students and those living and attending school in the United States under DACA, the Obama-era policy that protects children brought to the United States illegally as children.Under the emergency CARES legislation, colleges were directed to use half of the roughly $12.6 billion they received to fund emergency grants for students affected by campus closures to pay for expenses like food, housing, child care and technology.In nonbinding guidance issued in April, Ms. DeVos said that schools should grant the funds to only students who would normally qualify for federal student aid funds, effectively excluding large swaths of noncitizens and American students. In protesting the guidance, higher education advocates pointed out that the legislation did not specify which students were eligible.After facing a lawsuit over the reading, the Trump administration told a court it would not enforce Ms. DeVos’s order. Now it appears the administration is moving to toughen it.In a statement on Thursday announcing the rule, Ms. DeVos said it “helps erase any uncertainty some institutions have expressed and helps make sure we can support America’s students facing the greatest needs.”“It’s clear the CARES Act was written to help Americans recover from the coronavirus pandemic,” Ms. DeVos said in a statement. “U.S. taxpayers have long supported U.S. students pursuing higher education, and this rule simply ensures the continuity of that well-established policy.”Last month, the California community college system sued the Education Department, arguing that the April guidance was unconstitutional and “likely excludes more than half of all students in the California community college system, including many identified as economically disadvantaged.” In court filings, the department backed off the interpretation, saying that its guidance was “preliminary.” The department said in a court filing just this week that it would resolve the matter later this month.The rule, which would take effect immediately when it is published in the federal register, will be posted for public comment for 30 days.Trump’s convention speech is moving to Jacksonville.President Trump will deliver his Aug. 27 convention speech in Jacksonville, Fla., after his demands for an event without social distancing rules led to a rift with Democratic leaders in North Carolina, where the Republican convention was originally scheduled to be held.Ronna McDaniel, the chairwoman of the Republican National Committee, on Thursday confirmed that the speech would take place at the 15,000-seat VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena in Jacksonville, where the mayor and the governor are both Republican allies of Mr. Trump’s. An R.N.C. official would not say what, if any, coronavirus safety precautions would be in place.Republican officials were careful not to refer to the events that will take place in Jacksonville as a convention. Instead, they referred to it repeatedly as the city chosen “to celebrate the renomination of President Donald J. Trump.” The official business of the convention, they said, will still be held in Charlotte, N.C.The announcement of the speech’s move to Jacksonville capped a furious scramble set off when Mr. Trump and Gov. Roy Cooper of North Carolina reached a stalemate over how to pull off the convention as originally planned in Charlotte. Mr. Cooper insisted on social distancing measures and face masks inside to protect attendees from the spread of the coronavirus. Mr. Trump rejected those measures, insisting on a packed indoor arena with the look and feel of a country that had returned to business as usualScientists search for ways to calm the ‘cytokine storm’ that ravages some virus patients.Many virus patients seem to get better at first, then rapidly decline and are overtaken by an overwhelming immune response that causes the body to turn on itself.This “cytokine storm” was once an arcane phenomenon familiar mainly to rheumatologists who study when and how the immune system’s safeguards fail.But it has become increasingly clear in the last few months that, at least in a subset of people who have the virus, calming the storm is the key to survival.At least a dozen candidate drugs to treat the virus rely on this premise. A few devices that purify the blood, as dialysis machines do, are also being tested. One promising drug made by Roche is in several clinical trials, including a late-stage trial in combination with the antiviral drug remdesivir. And a recent paper in the journal Science Immunology described preliminary data on a drug that stems the flood of cytokines at its source and seems to lead to rapid recovery.

Updated June 12, 2020

What’s the risk of catching coronavirus from a surface?
Touching contaminated objects and then infecting ourselves with the germs is not typically how the virus spreads. But it can happen. A number of studies of flu, rhinovirus, coronavirus and other microbes have shown that respiratory illnesses, including the new coronavirus, can spread by touching contaminated surfaces, particularly in places like day care centers, offices and hospitals. But a long chain of events has to happen for the disease to spread that way. The best way to protect yourself from coronavirus — whether it’s surface transmission or close human contact — is still social distancing, washing your hands, not touching your face and wearing masks.

Does asymptomatic transmission of Covid-19 happen?
So far, the evidence seems to show it does. A widely cited paper published in April suggests that people are most infectious about two days before the onset of coronavirus symptoms and estimated that 44 percent of new infections were a result of transmission from people who were not yet showing symptoms. Recently, a top expert at the World Health Organization stated that transmission of the coronavirus by people who did not have symptoms was “very rare,” but she later walked back that statement.

How does blood type influence coronavirus?
A study by European scientists is the first to document a strong statistical link between genetic variations and Covid-19, the illness caused by the coronavirus. Having Type A blood was linked to a 50 percent increase in the likelihood that a patient would need to get oxygen or to go on a ventilator, according to the new study.

How many people have lost their jobs due to coronavirus in the U.S.?
The unemployment rate fell to 13.3 percent in May, the Labor Department said on June 5, an unexpected improvement in the nation’s job market as hiring rebounded faster than economists expected. Economists had forecast the unemployment rate to increase to as much as 20 percent, after it hit 14.7 percent in April, which was the highest since the government began keeping official statistics after World War II. But the unemployment rate dipped instead, with employers adding 2.5 million jobs, after more than 20 million jobs were lost in April.

Will protests set off a second viral wave of coronavirus?
Mass protests against police brutality that have brought thousands of people onto the streets in cities across America are raising the specter of new coronavirus outbreaks, prompting political leaders, physicians and public health experts to warn that the crowds could cause a surge in cases. While many political leaders affirmed the right of protesters to express themselves, they urged the demonstrators to wear face masks and maintain social distancing, both to protect themselves and to prevent further community spread of the virus. Some infectious disease experts were reassured by the fact that the protests were held outdoors, saying the open air settings could mitigate the risk of transmission.

How do we start exercising again without hurting ourselves after months of lockdown?
Exercise researchers and physicians have some blunt advice for those of us aiming to return to regular exercise now: Start slowly and then rev up your workouts, also slowly. American adults tended to be about 12 percent less active after the stay-at-home mandates began in March than they were in January. But there are steps you can take to ease your way back into regular exercise safely. First, “start at no more than 50 percent of the exercise you were doing before Covid,” says Dr. Monica Rho, the chief of musculoskeletal medicine at the Shirley Ryan AbilityLab in Chicago. Thread in some preparatory squats, too, she advises. “When you haven’t been exercising, you lose muscle mass.” Expect some muscle twinges after these preliminary, post-lockdown sessions, especially a day or two later. But sudden or increasing pain during exercise is a clarion call to stop and return home.

My state is reopening. Is it safe to go out?
States are reopening bit by bit. This means that more public spaces are available for use and more and more businesses are being allowed to open again. The federal government is largely leaving the decision up to states, and some state leaders are leaving the decision up to local authorities. Even if you aren’t being told to stay at home, it’s still a good idea to limit trips outside and your interaction with other people.

What are the symptoms of coronavirus?
Common symptoms include fever, a dry cough, fatigue and difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. Some of these symptoms overlap with those of the flu, making detection difficult, but runny noses and stuffy sinuses are less common. The C.D.C. has also added chills, muscle pain, sore throat, headache and a new loss of the sense of taste or smell as symptoms to look out for. Most people fall ill five to seven days after exposure, but symptoms may appear in as few as two days or as many as 14 days.

How can I protect myself while flying?
If air travel is unavoidable, there are some steps you can take to protect yourself. Most important: Wash your hands often, and stop touching your face. If possible, choose a window seat. A study from Emory University found that during flu season, the safest place to sit on a plane is by a window, as people sitting in window seats had less contact with potentially sick people. Disinfect hard surfaces. When you get to your seat and your hands are clean, use disinfecting wipes to clean the hard surfaces at your seat like the head and arm rest, the seatbelt buckle, the remote, screen, seat back pocket and the tray table. If the seat is hard and nonporous or leather or pleather, you can wipe that down, too. (Using wipes on upholstered seats could lead to a wet seat and spreading of germs rather than killing them.)

Should I wear a mask?
The C.D.C. has recommended that all Americans wear cloth masks if they go out in public. This is a shift in federal guidance reflecting new concerns that the coronavirus is being spread by infected people who have no symptoms. Until now, the C.D.C., like the W.H.O., has advised that ordinary people don’t need to wear masks unless they are sick and coughing. Part of the reason was to preserve medical-grade masks for health care workers who desperately need them at a time when they are in continuously short supply. Masks don’t replace hand washing and social distancing.

What should I do if I feel sick?
If you’ve been exposed to the coronavirus or think you have, and have a fever or symptoms like a cough or difficulty breathing, call a doctor. They should give you advice on whether you should be tested, how to get tested, and how to seek medical treatment without potentially infecting or exposing others.

When immune cells first encounter a pathogen, they release molecules called cytokines to recruit even more cells to the fight. Once the danger recedes, the immune system usually turns itself off. But occasionally, “it doesn’t shut up,” said Dr. Jose Scher, a rheumatologist at New York University Langone Health. “The immune system goes on and on and on and on.”This unrelenting response can exhaust the immune system; shut down lungs, kidneys and the liver; and prove fatal. It can do so even in young people and children who have no underlying conditions. The New York Police Department’s official policy is that officers should wear masks when interacting with the public, but the widespread absence of masks is striking. While officers may forgo face coverings for different reasons, the images have fueled a perception of the police as arrogant and dismissive of protesters’ health.“If you’re out here to protect the public, it starts with you,” said Chaka McKell, a carpenter who recently attended a protest.In a statement on Wednesday, the department dismissed the criticism about the lack of masks as petty.“Perhaps it was the heat,” the department’s press office said in a statement. “Perhaps it was the 15-hour tours, wearing bullet-resistant vests in the sun. Perhaps it was the helmets. With everything New York City has been through in the past two weeks and everything we are working toward together, we can put our energy to a better use.”On Thursday, Mayor Bill de Blasio said that while there were legitimate reasons for officers to remove their masks, such as to take a drink of water, the city remained “in the middle of a pandemic.”The city is still reporting hundreds of new cases each week. As of May 29, 901 uniformed members — about 2.5 percent — were out sick, down from 19.8 percent in April. As of that same date, 5,627 members of the Police Department had returned to work after testing positive.Here are other important developments in New York: Families weigh the risks of getting pregnant during a pandemic. As states start reopening, thousands of people are still trying to solve a dilemma: Should they get pregnant during a pandemic with so many unknowns, or delay the decision and potentially give up on their dream to grow their family?Much of what we know about how the virus affects pregnant women and children is based on limited data, and the potential long-term effects are unclear. Add to this economic uncertainty and an unemployment rate worse than in any previous postwar recession, and the choice to conceive becomes even more fraught. Those who are undecided might consider waiting, experts advised, but for some families — especially older individuals — that could prevent them from ever carrying a child.The Times spoke with six households about how the virus changed their approach to family planning. Some were determined to conceive, pushing aside worries about the pandemic, while others took a more cautious approach. But all of them had one thing in common: They struggled with their decision and hoped they made the right call.A jump in cases in Arizona is fueling concerns of an increase in community spread.Arizona is among the emerging hot spots in the United States, with 28,296 confirmed cases and 1,070 known deaths as of Tuesday.A jump in cases this month is fueling concerns of a potential increase in community spread, as the state saw several days in June with more than 1,000 newly reported cases, up from daily increases in the several hundreds.While state officials have contended that the rising numbers were expected and reflected expanded testing, epidemiologists and some local health departments say Arizona is undoubtedly experiencing increasing local transmission.The authorities are bracing for what comes next. Dr. Marjorie Bessel, the chief clinical officer at Banner Health, the state’s largest hospital system, said that the network’s I.C.U. units treating Covid-19 patients were growing so busy that Banner would soon need to exercise a “surge plan” to expand capacity. (About 50 percent of patients hospitalized with Covid-19 in Arizona are in Banner Health facilities.)Hospital beds across the state are at a premium, with only 17 percent available as of Monday, according to data from the state. On Wednesday, test results showed a 20 percent positive rate, the state reported.Still, health officials seem to be sending different messages to people in the state. Jessica Rigler, the state Health Department’s assistant director, told The Arizona Republic this week, “We don’t want people to be in crisis mode, thinking that everything is all bad in Arizona with the cases.”Arizona’s handling of the pandemic has vexed some epidemiologists and public health officials. Gov. Doug Ducey, a Republican, moved energetically to reopen the state in May.The U.S. economy needs more virus relief, Mnuchin says.Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said on Thursday that he was “very seriously considering” backing another round of economic stimulus payments to Americans as part of another relief package.The Trump administration is considering a range of measures to inject more money into the pandemic-rocked economy, which is facing its deepest downturn since the Great Depression. The House passed a $3 trillion virus relief bill last month, but Senate Republicans and the White House have dismissed that as dead on arrival.Negotiations between the White House and lawmakers are to get underway next month. While Mr. Mnuchin has said he would prefer additional stimulus to be targeted to specific industries hit hardest by the pandemic, direct payments to individuals would have the benefit of facilitating consumer spending more broadly.“It’s a very efficient way for us to deliver money into the economy,” Mr. Mnuchin said in a briefing with reporters on Thursday, noting that for people who still had jobs, the money was akin to a tax cut.Mr. Mnuchin said he remained optimistic that the economy would rebound during the second half of the year. He played down gloomy projections from the Federal Reserve this week that predicted that the unemployment rate could be close to 10 percent at the end of the year. Traditional economic models were poorly equipped to predict the effects of a pandemic, he said.The Treasury secretary said he believed that it was unlikely that the economy would be shut down again if there was a second wave of the virus, but he acknowledged that there was more work to be done to get businesses back on track. He pointed to the need for additional incentives such as tax credits to get firms to hire workers and tax deductions that would entice people to eat at restaurants.“High unemployment is unacceptable,” Mr. Mnuchin said. “We have more work to do.”The U.N. predicts that global trade will plunge 27 percent compared with this quarter last year.In a new sign of the economic meltdown caused by the virus, global trade is expected to plunge 27 percent in the April-June quarter compared with the same period last year, the United Nations said Thursday.The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, an agency known by its acronym UNCTAD, made the prediction in a quarterly update on trade trends. In April alone, it said in the report, preliminary data showed trade in energy products fell 40 percent and automotive products fell 50 percent.For the year, the agency predicted global trade would fall by 20 percent compared with 2019.While trade was already slowing before the pandemic, the agency said “the economic and social disruptions brought by Covid-19 are resulting in a dramatic decline.”China, where the novel coronavirus originated, appeared to have performed better than other major economies, with a 3 percent growth in April exports, the agency said, but the improvement could be fleeting because both imports and exports fell 8 percent in May.The agency’s assessment added to a chorus of sobering measurements about the impact of the pandemic. On Wednesday the Federal Reserve, in its first projections of 2020 economic performance for the United States, predicted years of high unemployment in what its chairman called “the biggest economic shock, in the U.S. and the world, really, in living memory.”A New York drugmaker is starting a clinical trial of an antibody treatment.The drugmaker Regeneron said on Thursday that it was beginning a clinical trial of an antibody cocktail that it has developed to prevent and treat Covid-19, the disease caused by the virus.Regeneron, based in Tarrytown, N.Y., is one of a handful of companies trying to develop treatments that work similarly to the antibodies that people develop naturally when they contract the virus. If the treatments work, they might provide a bridge to a vaccine, and possibly a temporary protection to people like health care workers who are at high risk.The company said it would begin testing its product in four groups: hospitalized Covid-19 patients; those infected and symptomatic but not hospitalized; groups at high risk of infection; and people exposed to someone with Covid-19. Drug trials are highly unpredictable, even if they have shown early promise in the lab. Still, the company has said that if the cocktail is successful, it could be ready to produce thousands of doses for preventive use by the end of the summer, before vaccines are available.The F.D.A.’s former head says states with new outbreaks ‘never really got rid of the first wave,’ as stocks slide. Dr. Scott Gottlieb, a former commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, warned on Thursday that some states are opening up for business even though they have not yet overcome the first wave of coronavirus cases.“It’s not a second wave,” Dr. Scott said in an interview with The New York Times columnist Andrew Ross Sorkin on CNBC’s “Squawk Box.” “They never really got rid of the first wave.”“I think we should be concerned,” he added. “When you look at states like Arizona and Texas, South Carolina, North Carolina — those are where the big outbreaks are right now.”Coronavirus infections were increasing in 21 states on Wednesday, as cases in the United States topped two million.Dr. Gottlieb said that some states were struggling to identify and trace particular people or events that may have hastened the spread of the virus. “The cases are certainly concerning but I think the more concerning part is they haven’t been able to isolate what the source of the infection is,” he said.When Wall Street opened a few hours later, stocks slid for a third-straight day of declines as investors considered a spate of grim forecasts about the economy. The S&P 500 fell more than 3 percent, on track for its worst daily drop since early April.Even as stocks have rallied in recent weeks, some Wall Street analysts have cautioned that a second wave of cases could spook investors. On Thursday, shares of hotels, airlines and other businesses — that had rallied recently amid optimism over lifting lockdowns — fell sharply.Reporting was contributed by Liz Alderman, Mike Baker, Hannah Beech, Kate Conger, Christina Caron, Michael Cooper, Nick Corasaniti, Jacey Fortin, Rick Gladstone, Michael Gold, Dana Goldstein, Denise Grady, Erica L. Green, Jenny Gross, Tiffany Hsu, Mike Ives, Thomas Kaplan, Annie Karni, Patrick Kingsley, Apoorva Mandavilli, Raphael Minder, Claire Moses, Paul Mozur, Elisabetta Povoledo, Tara Parker-Pope, Monika Pronczuk, Alan Rappeport, Frances Robles, Katie Rogers, Simon Romero, Kaly Soto, Matt Stevens, Sheryl Gay Stolberg, Ana Swanson, Eileen Sullivan, Carlos Tejada, Katie Thomas, Laetitia Vancon, Daniel Victor, David Waldstein, Michael Wilson, Michael Wines, Li Yuan and Karen Zraick.

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