The Slander Industry – The New York Times

1: The Stain

At first look, the web sites seem amateurish.

They’ve names like, and Pictures are badly cropped. Grammar and spelling are afterthoughts. They’re clunky and text-heavy, as in the event that they’re supposed to be learn by machines, not people.

However don’t underestimate their energy. When somebody assaults you on these so-called gripe websites, the outcomes might be devastating. Earlier this 12 months, we wrote a couple of girl in Toronto who poisoned the reputations of dozens of her perceived enemies by posting lies about them.

To evaluate the slander’s influence, we wrote a software program program to obtain each put up from a dozen of essentially the most lively grievance websites: greater than 150,000 posts about some 47,000 folks. Then we arrange an internet crawler that searched Google and Bing for hundreds of the individuals who had been attacked.

For about one-third of the folks, the nasty posts appeared on the primary pages of their outcomes. For greater than half, the gripe websites confirmed up on the prime of their picture outcomes.

These have been the Google picture outcomes for “aaron krolik nyc.”

Notice: Some picture outcomes have been blurred for privateness causes.

Typically engines like google go a step additional than merely itemizing hyperlinks; they show what they contemplate essentially the most related phrases about no matter you’re looking for.

One girl in Ohio was the topic of so many damaging posts that Bing declared in daring on the prime of her search outcomes that she “is a liar and a cheater” — the identical means it states that Barack Obama was the 44th president of the USA. For roughly 500 of the 6,000 folks we looked for, Google prompt including the phrase “cheater” to a search of their names.

The unverified claims are on obscure, ridiculous-looking websites, however engines like google give them a veneer of credibility. Posts from seem in Google outcomes alongside Fb pages and LinkedIn profiles — or, in my case, articles in The New York Occasions.

That may be unhealthy sufficient for folks whose reputations have been savaged. However the issue is all the more serious as a result of it’s so arduous to repair. And that’s largely due to the key, symbiotic relationship between these facilitating slander and people getting paid to take away it.

2: The Unfold

The posts I created featured a clumsy selfie and described me as a “loser who will do something for consideration.” We posted a model of the identical insult on 5 gripe websites. Every selfie included a singular watermark that allowed us to trace it if it confirmed up someplace new. For a picture posted to, for instance, we hid the area identify and the date within the file code.

# Aaron Krolik | New York | NYC
## Aaron Krolik is an entire loser. Will do ANYTHING for consideration. ANYTHING. Aaron Krolik. New York. NYC
watermark textual 1.29.21

convert -size 450×200 -background none -fill white -gravity heart caption:”BUSTED” -shade 600×100 WATERMARK_FILE.png
composite -dissolve 50% -gravity heart WATERMARK_FILE.png aaron.jpg aaronbusted.jpg
convert aaronbusted.jpg -strip aaronbusted.jpg
exiftool aaronbusted.jpg
posted: 2:40pm east

The posts unfold rapidly. Inside two hours, the Cheaterboard one had popped up on Inside a month, the unique 5 posts had spawned 21 copies on 15 websites.

What was the purpose of copying the posts? A giant clue have been the adverts that appeared subsequent to them, providing assist eradicating reputation-tarnishing content material.

The put up on featured this advert for fame administration.

Notice: Some figuring out info and profanity have been redacted.

We contacted all the websites that copied the unique posts. Solely two responded, and just one individual consented to an interview: Cyrus Sullivan, who runs

Mr. Sullivan, 37, of Portland, Ore., has been within the complaint-site enterprise since 2008, when he began It was impressed by his personal expertise; in his senior 12 months on the College of Oregon, he stated, he had intercourse with a girl who belatedly advised him that she had herpes.

“I believed there must be a solution to warn folks about one thing like that,” Mr. Sullivan stated. let folks anonymously put up unverified details about individuals who they stated had sexually transmitted ailments.

Mr. Sullivan stated he hadn’t made a lot cash till 2012, when attracted nationwide media consideration. Anderson Cooper had a daytime speak present on the time, and he did a phase dressing down Mr. Sullivan and others who ran grievance websites. Mr. Sullivan’s internet visitors soared, and posts quickly flooded the positioning.

Cyrus SullivanThe New York Occasions

After a few stints in jail — amongst different issues, he was convicted of sending demise threats to a girl and of throwing Sriracha Doritos into the face of cops, “utilizing the spicy mud as a weapon, like pepper spray,” in keeping with a court docket submitting — he began in 2018. It billed itself as “a foul speech search engine and internet archive” that captured terrible issues written about folks on different websites, similar to my put up on

Mr. Sullivan advised us that copying content material was a good way to lure folks to his websites. (He stated he didn’t really feel unhealthy about spreading unverified slander. “Educate youngsters to not speak to strangers, then train them to not consider what they learn on the web,” he stated.)

However there was a monetary incentive as effectively. Mr. Sullivan had began a reputation-management service to assist folks get “undesirable info” about themselves faraway from their search engine outcomes. The “gold bundle” value $699.99. For these clients, Mr. Sullivan would alter the pc code underlying the offending posts, instructing engines like google to disregard them.

three: The Safecracker

Some reputation-management corporations use adversarial ways to get posts taken down. However cozier relationships are the norm.

For instance, adverts for seem on a dozen distinguished gripe web sites, and have been connected to among the posts about me. 247Removing’s proprietor is Heidi Glosser, 38. She stated she didn’t know the way her adverts had ended up on these websites.

Heidi GlosserThe New York Occasions

Ms. Glosser prices $750 or extra per put up elimination, which provides as much as hundreds of for many of her purchasers. To get posts eliminated, she stated, she usually pays an “administrative payment” to the gripe website’s webmaster. We requested her whether or not this was extortion. “I can’t actually provide you with a direct reply,” she stated.

On the primary web page of Ms. Glosser’s personal Google search outcomes is a hyperlink to a court docket ruling associated to her 2003 conviction for housebreaking and safecracking. “It’s not associated to me,” she stated. She urged us to do a background verify on her, which confirmed her involvement.

Ms. Glosser stated she had determined to attempt to assist folks enhance their on-line reputations in 2018, after she watched an 11-minute documentary about revenge porn. The movie centered on Scott Breitenstein, a former plumber who ran websites internet hosting nude photographs of individuals posted with out their consent.

Websites managed by Mr. Breitenstein additionally have been venues for unverified allegations about cheaters, scams, predators, deadbeats and “potential johns.” After the documentary got here out, Mr. Breitenstein advised enterprise companions that he had offered his web sites. He didn’t reply to requests for remark.

Ms. Glosser stated her aim was to help victims of Mr. Breitenstein and his ilk.

Ms. Glosser used to stay close to Mr. Breitenstein in Dayton, Ohio. She stated that was a coincidence. “Dayton isn’t as small as everybody thinks it’s,” she stated. She stated she doesn’t know Mr. Breitenstein.

Why, then, have been Ms. Glosser and her deceased spouse pleasant with members of the Breitenstein household on Fb?

Ms. Glosser wouldn’t say.

four. Marilyn Monroe’s Autograph

We seen that the identical advert stored showing on the proliferating posts about me being a loser. It was a easy textual content advert for one thing referred to as “Take away Cheaters Websites Contents.”

Most sidebar adverts are programmatic. Which means they’re served up by an advert community with no involvement by the individuals who run a website, and so they change each time you go to. That wasn’t the case right here. The RepZe adverts have been everlasting fixtures, written into the web sites’ coding.

When Kashmir referred to as RepZe, a girl figuring out herself as Sofia refused to reply questions and stated to electronic mail the corporate as an alternative. No one responded to the emails.

After I reached out to RepZe through a kind on its website to ask about eradicating one of many posts about me, Sofia referred to as me. She stated that for $1,500 the put up could be eliminated inside 24 hours. The elimination would include a “lifetime assure,” she stated.

She inspired me to behave rapidly. “I don’t need to scare you, however these posts can unfold,” she warned.

At this level, we figured that when somebody paid an organization like RepZe to get a put up eliminated, RepZe then paid the grievance website to delete it. However our understanding turned out to be incomplete at greatest.

RepZe claims to be primarily based in a Denver suburb. However the firm isn’t registered for enterprise in Colorado.

The tackle on its web site belongs to Anytime Mailbox, which prices $9.99 monthly to create the looks of an workplace, accepting mail on somebody’s behalf after which scanning and emailing it to the consumer. (Anytime’s chief government, Matt Going, stated he couldn’t reply questions on RepZe, besides to say it was now not a buyer.)

The three folks listed as RepZe workers have scant on-line presences and don’t appear to exist. One web page on the web site features a message from RepZe’s chief government, recognized as “Mr. M. Moore.” On the backside of the message is what seems to be his signature. Upon nearer inspection, it’s Marilyn Monroe’s autograph.

RepZe has promotional movies on YouTube. The folks within the movies, together with those that claimed to be workers or clients, are paid actors. (We recognized them on a freelancing website, Fiverr, the place they charged as little as $25 to seem in movies.)

This video featured “Matt from RepZe.”

That is the promotional reel for the actor who performed “Matt.”

We tracked down precise clients of RepZe. All relayed the identical primary story. That they had employed the corporate to take away damaging posts about them, which it rapidly did. However then RepZe would threaten that, absent swift cost of the hundreds of the shoppers had agreed to pay, the posts would reappear and multiply.

“The content material can be restored,” a RepZe consultant wrote in a textual content to 1 buyer, who posted screenshots of the alternate on Fb. “We try to assist. You are attempting to piss my ass off.”

Then, months later, the posts would reappear.

One disgruntled buyer created below the pseudonym Greg Saint. He stated he had paid RepZe $four,000 in 2019 to take away two damaging posts. Months later, he stated, copies of the posts started reappearing on-line, and he suspected RepZe was accountable. He created to show the individual he thought was actually behind the service: a 28-year-old internet developer in India, Vikram Parmar.

5. A Clue within the Metadata

We had first heard Mr. Parmar’s identify months earlier, from a California software program developer, Aaron Greenspan.

Mr. Greenspan runs, which posts court docket paperwork and makes folks’s felony data simpler to seek out. He stated a type of folks, a convicted assassin, had tried to destroy his and his household’s on-line reputations.

Mr. Greenspan may have paid to get the posts eliminated, however he didn’t like the thought of ransom. As a substitute, he got down to unmask whoever was behind the websites and the reputation-management firms. This was simpler stated than completed.

“You don’t know the place it’s, who runs it, who hosts it,” he stated. “That’s how they evade any accountability.”

The web sites use what are referred to as privateness proxy companies to cover who owns them and the place they’re hosted. Mr. Greenspan combed by way of digital clues and tracked down lawsuits involving the websites — which he started cataloging on PlainSite — to map out the trade. He concluded that many websites gave the impression to be owned by a small handful of individuals. Each time he bought in contact with one in every of them, that individual would level him to different folks and say they have been the true unhealthy actors.

Mr. Greenspan bought in contact with RepZe, which had adverts subsequent to most of the posts attacking him. He pretended to be an buyer. RepZe gave him a quote of $14,800 to take away 17 posts. The corporate despatched a contract. Mr. Greenspan seemed on the doc’s metadata and located “Vikram Parmar” listed because the creator.



File identify:

Detrimental Content material Removing Contract with Aaron.docx.pdf

Doc kind:

PDF doc

File dimension:

400 KB (400,325 bytes)

PDF model:


Web page depend:


Web page dimension:

eight.5 x 14 inches



Vikram Parmar


PDF Producer:

Microsoft® Phrase for Workplace 365

Content material creator:

Microsoft® Phrase for Workplace 365

Creation date:

Apr 2, 2019 at 1:25 PM

Modification date:

Apr 2, 2019 at 1:25 PM

A fast Google search revealed that Mr. Parmar confronted felony prices. In 2014, he had created a faux web site that charged folks cash to use for nonexistent jobs with India’s Central Bureau of Investigation. Prosecutors in New Delhi charged him and a collaborator with felony conspiracy. (Mr. Parmar claimed that an “unscrupulous consumer” had employed him to create what he thought was a official web site. The case is pending.)

Mr. Greenspan despatched Mr. Parmar a message on Skype in September 2019. They started to speak. (Mr. Greenspan confirmed us screenshots of the chats.) He demanded that Mr. Parmar delete posts about him without cost. Mr. Parmar eliminated one, on, after which their dialog grew to become friendlier.

Mr. Parmar complained to Mr. Greenspan concerning the greediness of the house owners of different grievance websites. Considered one of them was a man in Ohio named Scott Breitenstein, who Mr. Parmar stated owned a whole lot of websites that stole unique content material from “official” ones.

Mr. Parmar advised Mr. Greenspan that he’d needed to pay Mr. Breitenstein to get copycat posts taken down. He stated Mr. Breitenstein had instructed him to ship checks to a different individual. Her identify was Heidi Glosser.

6. One of many Gents

We reached Mr. Parmar through Skype in February. He was on trip within the Indian seaside city of Goa. We stated we have been engaged on an article concerning the reputation-management trade. He denied involvement, saying he was “an actual property builder and in addition engaged on some authorities tasks.”

Then we laid out what we knew.

We had linked Mr. Parmar not simply to RepZe but in addition to a different cleanup service, As well as, we had discovered that he was concerned with,,, and All have been listed by RepZe or RemoveReports as locations from which they might take away content material.

At the least one of many websites had been registered below Mr. Parmar’s identify. Others have been linked to him in several methods. Some have the identical Google advert account; some share IP addresses; some had been registered to Mr. Parmar’s electronic mail tackle.



Area Title:


Registry Area ID:


Registrar WHOIS Server:

Registrar URL:

Up to date Date:


Creation Date:


Registrar Registration Expiration Date:



BigRock Options Ltd.

Registrar IANA ID:


Area Standing:

clientTransferProhibited #clientTransferProhibited

Registry Registrant ID:

Not Accessible From Registry

Registrant Title:

vikram parmar

Registrant Group:

Registrant Road:


Registrant Metropolis:


Registrant State/Province:


Registrant Postal Code:


Registrant Nation:


In different phrases, Mr. Parmar gave the impression to be working websites that produced slander and working websites that made cash by eradicating that slander.

Mr. Parmar sounded uneasy. He stated anybody may use anybody else’s electronic mail tackle to register a website. Then he admitted to performing some reputation-management work. Then he requested that his identify not be used on this article. Then he prompt different folks within the trade whom we should always examine as an alternative of him. (The record included Mr. Breitenstein and Ms. Glosser.)

“You might be just about correct however focusing on a fallacious man,” he wrote in a Skype message. “I’m simply mediator,” he added. “I’m one of many gentleman.”

Mr. Parmar resurfaced in April, about 20 minutes after we emailed RepZe searching for remark for this text. In messages over Skype, he stated he didn’t personal the grievance websites however was offering them companies, together with serving to them enhance their efficiency on engines like google.

Why have been his electronic mail tackle and Google advert accounts linked to the grievance websites? Mr. Parmar didn’t have a coherent clarification.

7. My Experiment Ends

Three months after my experiment began, my search outcomes have been struggling the results. Bing helpfully really helpful including “loser” to a seek for “Aaron Krolik.” Whenever you Googled my identify, Cheaters.information was on the prime of the picture outcomes.

Notice: Some figuring out info has been redacted.

There’s no means for me to delete the posts that I wrote; the slander websites don’t permit that. Primarily based on estimates offered by elimination companies, it might value me about $20,000 to get the posts taken down — and even then, extra posts may seem of their place.

There’s one other solution to reduce the posts’ influence. In sure circumstances, Google will take away dangerous content material from people’ search outcomes, together with hyperlinks to “websites with exploitative elimination practices.” If a website prices to take away posts, you’ll be able to ask Google to not record it.

Google didn’t promote this coverage broadly, and few victims of on-line slander appear conscious that it’s an choice. That’s partially as a result of if you Google methods to wash up your search outcomes, Google’s resolution is buried below adverts for reputation-management companies like RepZe.

I ultimately discovered the Google kind. I submitted a declare to have one URL eliminated. “Your electronic mail has been despatched to our group,” Google advised me.

Three days later, I acquired an electronic mail from Google saying the URL could be faraway from my search outcomes. Later that day, it was gone. I submitted the 25 different hyperlinks. They have been eliminated, too, however pictures from gripe websites stored reappearing in my search outcomes.

Different individuals who have used Google’s kind reported related experiences: It largely works, however is much less efficient for pictures. And you probably have an attacker who gained’t cease writing posts about you, it’s virtually ineffective. The slander stays.

Mr. Parmar, a self-described knowledgeable in how you can affect search outcomes, has not too long ago taken steps to burnish his personal fame. Across the time that we began making an attempt to achieve him, articles started showing on-line casting him in glowing phrases.

One piece gushed about his “rags-to-riches story.” One other, on, stated his web-marketing enterprise generated $2 million a 12 months in income. Mr. Parmar was quoted as saying he had purchased vehicles for himself and his household.

“I stay like a BOSS,” he stated.

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